Health Effects of Smoking Custom Essay

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This essay should be written in MLA format and it will be following the Rogerian style with two opposing sides.

This essay will be about Health Effects of Smoking and primarily look at the diseases that develop from smoking. Additionally there should be an opposite view point as well within the essay reguarding the health effects.

This essay should be between 900 and 1000 words. It must include a cover letter and an annotated bibliography

This essay must include a minimum of five sources. Five should be peer-reviewed sources. You may use eBooks; however, books generally are not as current as peer-reviewed articles. You may also use primary sources (interviews, statistics, etc); however, these primary sources should be obtained from experts within that field

Make sure to include the following sections in your essay:

· Introduction and claim.
· Background.
· Body.
· Conclusion.

Within the body of your Rogerian essay, make sure to include the following in any order:

· The background for your chosen topic.
· The opposition – use an academic tone, and do not show bias.
· The strengths and weaknesses of your opponents claim.
· Strong, scholarly research
· Your claim – use an academic tone, and do not show bias.
· Discuss the warrants for your claim and the opposition in order to find the common ground.
· Show the common ground between your opponents claim and your claim.

After you have written your essay, please make sure to revise the content of your essay. Lastly, be sure to edit your essay by checking grammar, format, and smaller technical details. Please make sure your essay is written in third person.

Each Reference should be a peer reviewed article and each of the five articles must be cited 3-5 times in MLA formatting. Additionally a annotated biblography must be completed with this essay.

An annotated Bibliography (AB) is due with your Rogerian essay. Using the MLA guide, list each source as it will appear on the Works Cited page of your essay. In two to three sentences summarize the text.

An example is as follows:

Clark, Irene L. The Genre of Argument. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace, 1998. Print.

Clark’s textbook identifies the major steps to developing a well-researched and well-written argumentative essay. Professional essays are included in the text as models.

Ward, Russ. Logical Argument in the Research Paper. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace, 1997. Print.

Augmenting the steps to writing an argumentative research paper is information about proper documentation. The Toulmin System, an important aspect of a well-planned paper, should be studied carefully.

Here is how a rogerian essay is written out:


How to Write a Rogerian Essay
The first step in this process is to research the topic of the essay, with care given to understanding not only your own preferred position but that of individuals who disagree strongly. The Rogerian form cannot proceed without this depth of research and empathic and just consideration. Where many essays can allow lopsided research, the Rogerian essay must be either balanced or, if anything, should favor research on the opposing position.

Outline the first stage of the essay, which is introductory. The writer presents the topic and concedes that the topic is one on which honest individuals disagree strongly.

Outline the second stage, which is a brief appeal to readers, indicating that progress may be made through understanding, the recognition of mutually shared positions and concerns, and through a just and respectful exchange of ideas. This stage stresses shared benefits and shared costs of the topic, and it prepares the reader to consider the arguments with a calm and open frame of mind.

Outline the third stage. In the third stage, state your own position very briefly—enough to provide the reader with an understanding of your beliefs in relation to his or her own—but then to proceed to examine what you understand to be the beliefs of those who do not share your stance. This stage is crucial: The examination of the beliefs of your opponent must be respectful, honest, reasonably complete and in proportion to the length of the essay as a whole, and there should be no sense of setting the opposition up to lose or to be ridiculed. A sense of honest empathy is desired, without any sense of falseness or patronization. If this stage of the essay fails, the essay as a whole fails. Readers in opposition will have no reason to continue in trust and with open minds if you have not first demonstrated good faith, intellectual honesty and respect. This is not the same as submission; you may and should remain true to your own position. But you must be capable of understanding and giving a fair representation of an opposing position.

Outline the fourth stage. Here you restate your own position and examine it more fully in relation to the opposing position. This stage must give honest recognition of the other party’s strong arguments and must also address those elements the two positions have in common. When a reasonable compare and contrast has been done, conceding weaknesses on your side and finding mutual areas of shared interest, you are ready for the final stages of the essay.

Present a possible starting point for discussion, based on shared goals and interests, with a clear statement of areas left to be explored and discussed. This is the point at which you reach the goal of the essay: not to convince the reader that your position is correct in its entirety, but to convince the reader that it is safe and beneficial to enter into dialogue, discovering yet unrecognized shared goals and mutually acceptable compromises. To achieve this stage successfully, the reader should have at all stages a sense of honesty, honor and open-mindedness on your part, as well as a belief that there was a good-faith attempt at understanding the position of others.

Outline the conclusion. The conclusion is not an argument intended to win a conflict but to win trust and an open exchange of ideas. It should reprise the nature of the subject, give another brief and respectful review of both sides, as well as offer a slightly longer review of shared positions and the benefit of open, good-faith dialogue. It should end on a positive note of hope.

After the outline is fully constructed, take the time to test the connections between the stages, the flow of the discussion, and give special attention to fair evaluation and generous goodwill toward the opposing side. Remember, in a Rogerian essay, you can’t “win” by beating your opponent but only by convincing your opponent to work with you with an open mind, in shared respect.


Having created a strong outline, you may proceed to write the actual essay working from your staged notes. When you complete the essay, take extra time in preparing second and third drafts to double- and triple-check your treatment of the opposing side and the nature of shared positions and mutual benefits. The tone of the writing must avoid patronization, disrespect or an assumption of foreknowledge that the opponent will eventually accept your stance in full. The emotional burden of the writing need not be neutral—and would often be seen as dishonest if it were neutral—but it must be well-informed, fair-minded and obviously written in a good-faith attempt to understand and consider an “alien” point of view.

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