Linguistics ANALYSIS Custom Essay

This is an optional makeup problem. If you wish, you may optionally

write this problem up to replace the corresponding part of your

midterm grade. By ‘writeup’, what is meant is a formal, written essay

which walks the reader through a phonological analysis.

• You will posit one (or more) UR(s) for the morpheme meaning ‘in’,

give one or more rules which are needed to derive the surface forms,

and give derivations to illustrate each of the rules in action.

• Your analysis should also explain why you made certain choices in

preference to other seemingly reasonable alternative. For example,

– why a phonological/morphological approach is preferable to a

– why the UR is not a di?erent allomorph

– why the target and conditioning environments are what you said

• Recall that good written form includes a walkthrough of each part of

the logic, rather than a big ‘data dump’ of rules, followed by a ‘data

dump’ of derivations, with little verbiage

The focus of this problem is the morphophonology of the Russian mor-
pheme meaning ‘in’. For simplicity, variations in pronunciation that arise

from vowel reduction have been removed. Consider the following data:


a. [vaspj

c. [vj


e. [vogurj

g. [vukrolj

morphological/phonological approach

for the rule and not something more general or more speci?c



e] ‘in aspirin.loc’ b. [naaspj

e] ‘in nonsense.loc’ d. [najerundj

>ts1] ‘in cucumber.loc’ f. [naogurj


e] ‘in dill.loc’ h. [naukrolj



e] ‘on aspirin.loc’

e] ‘on nonsense.loc’

>ts1] ‘on cucumber.loc’


e] ‘on dill.loc’


Note that Russian has palatalization, meaning that for nearly every ‘nor-
mal’ consonant C there is a contrasting palatalized consonant C

shares the same primary place/manner/voicing features, but possesses a

secondary palatal articulation. Moreover, the mid-vowel /e/ allophonically

palatalizes the consonant before it (1a-h). There are two exceptions to

this. First, the dental a?ricate >ts is considered inherently un-palatalizable,

in which case /e/ mutates to [1] (1e,f). Second, if there is no preceding

consonant, the palatal articulation is realized as a front glide immediately

before the vowel (1d). For the purposes of this problem, you may ignore

palatalization, as it does not interact with the phenomenon of interest.

Here is the next set of data:



a. [lj


b. [lj

c. [napj

d. [novostj

e. [rabotnj

f. [ras] [vrazj

ip] [vgrj

g. [grj

h. [gr1p] [vgr1bj

i. [glas] [vglazj

j. [gostj

k. [da>

tSa] [vda>

l. [druk] [vdruzj

m. [ü1na] [vü1nj

n. [ü1vot] [vü1votj

o. [zaks] [vzaksj

p. [zakas] [vzakazj

q. [zup] [vzubj

Now consider the following:

ija] [vlj

ist] [vlj

istok] [vnapj

] [vnovostj

ik] [vrabotnj

>tsa] [vgostj




ije] ‘lecture / in lecture.loc’



e] ‘linguist / in linguist.loc’


e] ‘beverage / in beverage.loc’

i] ‘news / in news.loc’


e] ‘worker / in worker.loc’

e] ‘occasion / in occasion.loc’


e] ‘?u / in ?u.loc’

e] ‘mushroom / in mushroom.loc’

e] ‘eye / in eye.loc’

>ts1] ‘guesthouse / in guesthouse.loc’



tSe] ‘countryhouse / in countryhouse.loc’

e] ‘friend / in friend.loc’

e] ‘wife / in wife.loc’

e] ‘stomach / in stomach.loc’

e] ‘civic o?ce / in c.o.loc’

e] ‘order / in order.loc’

e] ‘tooth / in tooth.loc’



ik] [fknj

a. [knj

>ts] [fklju

b. [klju

c. [sat] [fsadj

d. [stol] [fstolj

e. [sobaka] [fsobakj

elka] [ftarj

f. [tarj

g. [trut] [ftrudj

h. [xj


i. [xolodj



j. [

>ts1snok] [f>ts1snokj

k. [

l. [ùtraf ] [fùtrafj

And here is the ?nal set of data:


a. [babuùka] [vobabuùkj

b. [banja] [vobanj

c. [bljudo] [vobljude] ‘prepared dish / in p.d.loc’

d. [bolj

] [vobolj

e. [varon] [vovaronj

f. [varj

enje] [vovarj

g. [votka] [vovotkj

h. [malj>


i. [mj

tSta] [vmj


tSka] [vopa>

j. [pa>

k. [pj

ivo] [vopj

l. [ploùadj

tSok] [vopu>

m. [pu>

ija] [fxj



ik] [fxolodj

ija] [f>ts1rj


e] ‘book / in book.loc’

>ts1] ‘key / in key.loc’

e] ‘garden / in garden.loc’

e] ‘table / in table.loc’

e] ‘dog / in dog.loc’

elke] ‘dish / in dish.loc’

e] ‘labor / in labor.loc’


ije] ‘.loc’



e] ‘.loc’

e] ‘?ne / in ?ne.loc’



e] ‘refrigerator / in refrigerator.loc’

ije] ‘ceremony / in ceremony.loc’

tSik] [vmalj>

] [voploùadj

e] ‘grandmother / in grandmother.loc’

e] ‘bathhouse / in bathhouse.loc’

i] ‘pain / in pain.loc’

e] ‘traincar / in traincar.loc’

enji] ‘(boiled) jam / in jam.loc’

e] ‘vodka / in vodka.loc’


e] ‘little boy / in boy.loc’



e] ‘dream in dream.loc’



e] ‘package / in package.loc’


e] ‘beer / in beer.loc’

i] ‘town square / in square.loc’


e] ‘bundle / in bundle.loc’


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